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SPACE AND TIME
CONTEMPLATING THE FOURTH DIMENSION
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Time is a progress of existence. It is a series of then, now and later.

Quoting from Alan Lightman's "Einstein's dreams", "Suppose time is a circle, bending back on itself, the world repeats itself, precisely, endlessly. In one dream, people live up mountains and build their houses on stilts, suppose they discovered that time flows relatively more slowly as one moves further from the centre of the earth. In another, banks, factories and houses are all motorised and constantly on the move, supposing time is money and slows down as you accelerate, so the faster you go the more you have."

Space is the cosmos that lies beyond the Earth's atmosphere.
Technically speaking, space does exist at some point in time.
Now, do time and space exist independently of the mind?
Do they exist independently of one another?
What accounts for time's apparently unidirectional flow?
Whether times other than the present moment stay alive?

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Space and time unite

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Space between the stars - Starlights from the Milky Way dazzle above England's largest island.

The likes of mathematician Hermann Minkowski and physicist Albert Einstein taught us to conceive space and time as a unified continuum, helping us to understand how very large and very little things such as individual atoms move. Nonetheless, we haven't solved the question of what space exactly is about.

If one sucked all the matter out of the universe, would space be left behind?

Is there space between the stars?

Leibniz's relationism, on the other hand, describes space and time as systems of relations that exist between objects.

He argued that space is the spatial relation between things. Phase Shift is "a part of" BMSCE. Phase Shift as we know, wouldn't exist if BMSCE didn't, which implies, space would not exist independently of the things it connects. For him, if nothing existed, there couldn't be any spatial relation. If our universe were destroyed, space wouldn't exist in the first place at all.

In contrast, on absolutism, Clarke proposed a theory that defined notions of space and time as real objects themselves, arguing that space is a sort of substance that is everywhere. Space is a giant repository, containing all the things in the universe: stars, planets, us. It allows us to make sense of how things move from one place to another, of how our entire material universe could move through space. More so, he claimed space to be divine: space is God's presence in the world.
In a way, space is God. For him, if our universe were destroyed, space would be left behind. Just as you can't delete God, you can't delete space.

Quantum theories are deterministic in the sense that they give laws for the evolution of the wave with time. Hence, if we know the wave at one time, we can calculate it at any other time. The unpredictable, random element comes in, only when we try to interpret the wave in terms of the positions and velocities of particles. But maybe that's where we are flawed, maybe there are no particle positions and velocities all the time, instead there are waves at times. It is just that we try to fit the waves to our preconceived ideas of positions and velocities, in all cases, regardless of the scenario. The resulting mismatch is the cause of the apparent unpredictability.

It is gravity that shapes the large-scale structure of the universe. When it was previously believed that the universe is unchanging in time, it was soon overruled by the fact that gravity is always attractive, suggesting that the universe must be either expanding or contracting.
When we combine quantum mechanics with general relativity, there seems to be a new possibility that did not arise before, that space and time together might form a finite, four-dimensional space without singularities or boundaries, like the surface of the Earth but with more dimensions. It seems that this idea could explain many of the observed features of the universe, such as its large-scale uniformity and also the smaller-scale departures from homogeneity, including galaxies, stars, and even human beings. But if the universe is completely self-contained, with no singularities or boundaries, it has profound implications for the role of God as the creator.

my img

Space is a giant repository - all the planets orbit the sun in nearly a single sheet called the plane of the ecliptic.
Photo credits: NASA

SPACE AND TIME
CONTEMPLATING THE FOURTH DIMENSION
my img

Time is a progress of existence. It is a series of then, now and later.

Quoting from Alan Lightman's "Einstein's dreams", "Suppose time is a circle, bending back on itself, the world repeats itself, precisely, endlessly. In one dream, people live up mountains and build their houses on stilts, suppose they discovered that time flows relatively more slowly as one moves further from the centre of the earth. In another, banks, factories and houses are all motorised and constantly on the move, supposing time is money and slows down as you accelerate, so the faster you go the more you have."

Space is the cosmos that lies beyond the Earth's atmosphere.
Technically speaking, space does exist at some point in time.
Now, do time and space exist independently of the mind?
Do they exist independently of one another?
What accounts for time's apparently unidirectional flow?
Whether times other than the present moment stay alive?

my img

Space and time unite

The likes of mathematician Hermann Minkowski and physicist Albert Einstein taught us to conceive space and time as a unified continuum, helping us to understand how very large and very little things such as individual atoms move. Nonetheless, we haven't solved the question of what space exactly is about.

If one sucked all the matter out of the universe, would space be left behind?

Is there space between the stars?

Leibniz's relationism, on the other hand, describes space and time as systems of relations that exist between objects.

He argued that space is the spatial relation between things. Phase Shift is "a part of" BMSCE. Phase Shift as we know, wouldn't exist if BMSCE didn't, which implies, space would not exist independently of the things it connects. For him, if nothing existed, there couldn't be any spatial relation. If our universe were destroyed, space wouldn't exist in the first place at all.

my img

Space between the stars - Starlights from the Milky Way dazzle above England's largest island.

In contrast, on absolutism, Clarke proposed a theory that defined notions of space and time as real objects themselves, arguing that space is a sort of substance that is everywhere. Space is a giant repository, containing all the things in the universe: stars, planets, us. It allows us to make sense of how things move from one place to another, of how our entire material universe could move through space. More so, he claimed space to be divine: space is God's presence in the world.
In a way, space is God. For him, if our universe were destroyed, space would be left behind. Just as you can't delete God, you can't delete space.

Quantum theories are deterministic in the sense that they give laws for the evolution of the wave with time. Hence, if we know the wave at one time, we can calculate it at any other time. The unpredictable, random element comes in, only when we try to interpret the wave in terms of the positions and velocities of particles. But maybe that's where we are flawed, maybe there are no particle positions and velocities all the time, instead there are waves at times. It is just that we try to fit the waves to our preconceived ideas of positions and velocities, in all cases, regardless of the scenario. The resulting mismatch is the cause of the apparent unpredictability.

my img

Space is a giant repository - all the planets orbit the sun in nearly a single sheet called the plane of the ecliptic.
Photo credits: NASA

It is gravity that shapes the large-scale structure of the universe. When it was previously believed that the universe is unchanging in time, it was soon overruled by the fact that gravity is always attractive, suggesting that the universe must be either expanding or contracting.
When we combine quantum mechanics with general relativity, there seems to be a new possibility that did not arise before, that space and time together might form a finite, four-dimensional space without singularities or boundaries, like the surface of the Earth but with more dimensions. It seems that this idea could explain many of the observed features of the universe, such as its large-scale uniformity and also the smaller-scale departures from homogeneity, including galaxies, stars, and even human beings. But if the universe is completely self-contained, with no singularities or boundaries, it has profound implications for the role of God as the creator.